Security Challenges and Approaches in Internet of Things, IOT

The Internet of Things (IoT) has been considered as an emerging research area where the 6LoWPAN (IPv6 over Low-Power Wireless Personal Area Network) protocol stack is considered as one of the most important protocol suite for the IoT.
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iotmania
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Security Challenges and Approaches in Internet of Things, IOT

Postby iotmania » 05 Feb 2018, 14:19

Security Challenges and Approaches in Internet of Things, IOT
1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
2 System Model for the Internet of Things. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1 The Concept of the “Internet of Things” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Evolution of the Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
2.3 Vision of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
2.3.1 Large Scale Ubiquitous and Pervasive Connectivity . . . . . 9
2.3.2 Context-Aware Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.3 Seamless Connectivity and Interoperability . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
2.3.4 Network Neutrality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.4 Applications of the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
2.5 Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
3 Vulnerable Features and Threats. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.1 Vulnerable Features of the Internet of Things. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.2 Threat Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.2.1 Definition of Threat. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
3.2.2 Proposed Taxonomy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2.3 System Security Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2.4 Privacy Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.2.5 Reflective Trust and Reputation Threats . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4 Securing the Internet of Things . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1 Making the IoT More Secure and Private. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
4.1.1 Protocol and Network Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.1.2 Data and Privacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.1.3 Identity Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
4.1.4 Trust Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.1.5 Fault Tolerance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
4.2 Standardization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
4.3 Governance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.4 Social Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
5 Social Governance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.1 Evolution of Network Management and Social Governance. . . . . . 53
5.2 The Framework . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
5.2.1 The Hierarchical Distributed Policy Management
System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
5.2.2 Policy Compliant Smart Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57
5.2.3 HDPMS and PCSDs in Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
5.2.4 Communications in HDPMS-PCSDs Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
5.2.5 Policy Resolution in the HDPMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
5.2.6 Local Consent Polling Mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
5.2.7 Trusted Computing Base in the IoT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
5.2.8 Social Governance for Policy Makers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
5.2.9 Social Governance for Innovators/Manufacturers. . . . . . . . 72
5.2.10 Social Governance for Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
5.3 Example of Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
6 Case Studies of Selected IoT Deployments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.1 Connected Vehicles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.1.1 Significance of Connected Vehicles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
6.1.2 Background on Vehicular Networks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
6.1.3 Attacks Classification with Selected Countermeasures. . . . 81
6.2 eHealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
6.2.1 Security and Privacy Significance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.2.2 Risks, Vulnerabilities, and Threats Classification. . . . . . . . 86
6.2.3 Security Requirements and Attack Scenarios. . . . . . . . . . . 88
6.2.4 Selected eHealth Security Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.3 The Smart Grid. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.3.1 Selected Cases of Security Incidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
6.3.2 Further Reading. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
7 Conclusions and Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.1 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
7.2 Future Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
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