Millimeter-Wave Beamforming: Antennas for 5G applications

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maldives
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Millimeter-Wave Beamforming: Antennas for 5G applications

Postby maldives » 21 Jul 2017, 09:42

Millimeter-wave bands are of increasing interest for the satellite industry and under discussion as
potential 5G bands. Antennas for 5G applications make use of the shorter element sizes at these high
frequencies to incorporate a larger count of radiating elements. These antenna arrays are essential for
beamforming operations that play an important part in next generation networks.
This white paper introduces some of the fundamental theory behind beamforming antennas. In addition to
these basic concepts, calculation methods for radiation patterns and a number of simulations results, as
well as some real world measurement results for small linear arrays are shown. Due to the bandwidths
likely to be employed in such applications, a non-standard way of graphical representation is proposed.

Table of Contents
1 Introduction ......................................................................................... 1
2 Beamforming Signals ......................................................................... 2
2.1 Phase Coherent Signal Generation............................................................................ 2
2.2 Signal Propagation ...................................................................................................... 3
3 Beamforming Architectures ............................................................... 5
3.1 Analog Beamforming .................................................................................................. 5
3.2 Digital Beamforming .................................................................................................... 7
3.3 Hybrid Beamforming ................................................................................................... 8
4 Simulating Linear Array Antennas .................................................... 9
4.1 Theoretical Background .............................................................................................. 9
4.2 Application Examples ...............................................................................................10
5 Linear Array OTA Measurement ...................................................... 13
5.1 Enhancing the Simulation with Measurement Data ...............................................13
5.1.1 Measurement Results for single Elements ..................................................................13
5.1.2 Simulation Results based on Measured Element Patterns .........................................14
5.2 Antenna Scan .............................................................................................................16
5.3 Further reading ..........................................................................................................17
6 Results and Outlook ......................................................................... 18
7 Appendix ........................................................................................... 19
7.1 MATLAB® Pattern Generation Script .......................................................................19
7.1.1 Main Function ..............................................................................................................19
7.1.2 Linear Array Factor Function .......................................................................................21
7.1.3 Friis Equation Function ................................................................................................22
8 References ........................................................................................ 23
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